Category: Distinguished Diseases

Posted in Distinguished Diseases Integument Parasitic

Mites are eight legged ectoparasites that infect the skin of many different species. The main mite species are Demodex and Sarcoptes, but Notoedres, Otodectes, Psoroptes, Chorioptes and Cheyletiella are also significant. Because they’re all so similar, sometimes it can be hard to keep them straight!

Posted in Distinguished Diseases Equids Nutritional

Equine Metabolic Syndrome (EMS) and Pituitary Pars Intermedia Dysfunction (PPID) are both common, older horse conditions that veterinarians see daily. They can also cause a lot of the same clinical signs, despite being very different diseases. So what is the difference between them?

Posted in Distinguished Diseases Fungal Parasitic

Vet med loves to give two very different things the same nickname, for some reason. In this case, both of these pathogens, Cryptococcus and Cryptosporidium, share the same short name of Crypto. So what is the difference between them?

Posted in Distinguished Diseases Endocrine

The thyroid gland’s main job is producing the two thyroid hormones: thyroxine (T₄) and triiodothyronine (T₃). These hormones influence cellular metabolism, including increasing cellular oxygen consumption and increasing protein synthesis.

Posted in Distinguished Diseases

The body has three basic cavities: the thorax, the abdomen, and the pericardial sac. Sometimes, these cavities can become filled with various types of fluids. These accumulations can have different outcomes depending on the type of fluid, and its effects on the surrounding organs.

Posted in Distinguished Diseases Endocrine

Cortisol is probably the most well known of the glucocorticoids, which are produced by the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex. Its main functions are increasing blood sugar by increasing glucose synthesis, suppression of the immune system, and metabolism of other energy sources like fats, proteins and carbohydrates. Because it has such varying effects, having a dysfunction in cortisol levels can be very significant for the animal!

Posted in Distinguished Diseases Liver and Biliary

Icterus or jaundice is the yellowish discolouration of tissues, due to increased levels of bilirubin. Typically, we see bilirubin deposition in tissues with a high elastic content, like the aorta.

Posted in Cardiovascular Distinguished Diseases

Heart failure is defined as when the heart’s pumping fails to meet the blood and oxygen demands of the tissues. Ultimately, this failure can be caused by decreased cardiac output, or decreased blood return.

Posted in Distinguished Diseases Respiratory

One of the most common methods of describing pneumonias is based on their morphologic pattern, that is, the location where the pneumonia is located. Knowing what anatomic structures are affected can actually help you determine the most likely etiology, how the animal became exposed to that agent, and the subsequent pathogenesis.